CNC machine tool is a typical mechatronics products, which combines microelectronics, computer technology, measurement technology, sensor technology, automatic control technology and artificial intelligence technology and other advanced technologies in one, and closely integrated with the machining process, is a new generation of machinery manufacturing technology and equipment.
First, the composition of CNC machine tools
CNC machine tools set machine tools, computers, motors and dragging, dynamic control, detection and other technologies as one of the automated equipment. The basic components of CNC machine tools include control media, CNC devices, servo systems, feedback devices and machine tool body, such as Figure.
1, control medium
Control medium is the storage of all the action required for CNC machining tool relative to the workpiece position information medium, which records the processing procedures of the parts, therefore, the control medium means that the parts processing information transmitted to the CNC device to the information carrier. Control medium has a variety of forms, it varies with the type of CNC device.
2, CNC device
CNC control device is the core of CNC machine tools, people are called “central system”. Modern CNC machine tools are using computer numerical control device CNC.
CNC control device including input devices and central processing unit (CPU) and output devices constitute the CNC device can complete the information input, storage, transformation, interpolation operations and the realization of various control functions.
3, servo system
Servo system is to receive instructions from the CNC device, drive the machine actuator movement of the drive components. Including spindle drive unit, feed drive unit, spindle motor and feed motor.
Work, the servo system to accept the instructions of the CNC system information, and in accordance with the requirements of the instruction information and position, speed feedback signal after comparison, drive the machine tool moving parts or actuating parts action, processing the parts in line with the requirements of the drawings.
Feedback device is composed of measuring elements and the corresponding circuit, its role is to detect the speed and displacement, and the information back, constituting a closed-loop control. Some of the precision requirements of CNC machine tools, no feedback device, is called open-loop system.
5, the body of the machine tool
Machine tool body is the entity of the CNC machine tool, is the completion of the actual mechanical part of the cutting process, which includes the bed, base, table, bed saddle, spindle, etc..
Second, the characteristics of CNC machining process
CNC CNC machining process also abides by the laws of mechanical machining cutting, and ordinary machine tool processing process is largely the same. As it is the computer control technology applied to machining in an automated processing, and thus has high processing efficiency, high precision, processing technology has its unique features, more complex processes, work step arrangement is more detailed and thorough.
CNC CNC machining process includes the selection of tools, cutting parameters and the determination of the design of the tooling process route.
CNC CNC machining process is the basis of CNC programming and the core, only reasonable process, in order to compile a high efficiency and high quality CNC program. The standard for measuring the good or bad CNC program is: the minimum processing time, the minimum tool loss and processing the best results of the workpiece.
CNC machining process is a part of the overall processing process of the workpiece, or even a process. It has to cooperate with other before and after processes in order to finally meet the overall machine or mold assembly requirements, so that the qualified parts can be processed.
The CNC machining process is generally divided into roughing, medium roughing, semi-finishing and finishing steps.