What is the difference between a CNC machine and a normal machine?

What is the difference between a CNC machine and a normal machine?

Modern machinery manufacturing in the processing of mechanical parts of many methods, in addition to cutting, there are casting, forging, welding, stamping, extrusion, etc., but where the requirements of high precision and surface roughness requirements of the finer parts, generally need to be in the machine tool with cutting methods for the final processing. Traditional machine tools usually include supporting components, variable speed mechanism, feed mechanism, spindle box, tool holder, lubrication and cooling system and other parts of the composition, and CNC machine tools are developed on the basis of traditional machine tools, the two processes and structures are similar, but CNC machine tools are mainly produced through the program, in the process of processing will not or rarely by human intervention, the following is a brief description of the difference between CNC machine tools and traditional machine tools are What.

First, the structure of CNC machine tools composition

The basic components of CNC machine tools include processing program carriers, CNC devices, servo drives, machine tool bodies and other auxiliary devices and other components, each component is controlled by the CNC system, which includes the CNC system, the main drive system, feed servo system, cooling and lubrication system, etc.: (1) control system CNC machine tool motion control.

(1) control system CNC machine tool motion control centre, the implementation of CNC machining program control machine tool for processing.

(2) auxiliary devices such as hydraulic, pneumatic, lubrication, cooling systems and chip removal, protection and other devices.

(3) spindle box including spindle box and spindle drive system, used to clamp the tool and drive the tool rotation, spindle speed range and output torque has a direct impact on the processing.

(4) The feed servo system consists of feed motors and feed actuators, which achieve relative motion between the tool and the workpiece in accordance with the programmed feed speed, including linear feed motion and rotary motion.

(5) machine tool base parts usually refers to the base, column, beam, etc., it is the foundation and framework of the entire machine tool.

Second, the advantages of CNC machine tools than traditional machine tools

(1) CNC machine tool structure is more simplified

Part of the typical CNC machine tool mechanical structure is mainly composed of foundation parts, main drive system, feed drive system, rotary table and other mechanical function accessories and other parts. CNC machine tool mechanical structure, first of all, from the digital control technology features due to the effect of control machine tools using servo motors, the application of digital technology to achieve the direct control of the machine tool execution of the sequence of work and movement displacement, the traditional machine tool gearbox structure was canceled or partially canceled, and thus the mechanical structure is greatly simplified.

(2) functional integration of CNC machine tools

Digital control system also requires mechanical systems with high transmission rigidity and no transmission gap to ensure the implementation of control instructions and control quality. At the same time due to the level of computer and control capabilities continue to improve, the same machine tool to allow more functional components of the simultaneous implementation of the various auxiliary functions required has become possible, and thus the mechanical structure of the CNC milling machine than the traditional machine tool has a higher degree of integration of functional requirements.

(3) CNC machine tool precision efficiency is higher

From the development of manufacturing technology requirements, along with the emergence of a variety of new materials and new processes, as well as market competition between the requirements of cost reduction, metal cutting processing is moving towards higher and higher cutting speed and accuracy, higher and higher production efficiency and more and more reliable system development. This requires the development of CNC machine tools based on traditional machine tools to be more accurate. Drive power faster, mechanical mechanism stiffness is better, more reliable work, can achieve a long period of continuous operation and as little downtime as possible.

(4) CNC machine tool accessories standardization

With the continuous accumulation of various machine tool process data, CNC machine tool base parts, including bed, column, beam, table, base and other structural parts, as well as supporting tools, fixtures, cutting oil, etc. is moving towards standardization, process development, to solve the problem of generalization of machine tool equipment.

These are some of the differences between CNC machine tools and traditional machine tools, according to the enterprise’s own process situation reasonable choice of equipment can reduce the production costs of enterprises.

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